Operating Systems/Programming

History of Programming Languages

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            Programming languages enable users and computers to interact with each other and allow us to be able to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express numerous algorithms. Since the dawn of the computer, many different types of programming languages have been created to complete an always increasing number of tasks. Listed below are a few of the most known or widely used languages.
FORTRAN (Formula Translation) This was the first high-level programming language. It was Invented by John Backus for IBM in 1954, and released commercially in 1957. FORTRAN is still in use today for programming mathematical and scientific applications. This language was actually originally named Speedcoding.
LISP- (List Processor) This language was created in 1956 by John McCarthy to develop a list processing language for use in Artificial Intelligence. LISP is commonly used in computer games, pattern recognition, and air defense systems.
PASCAL– This language was created in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth. It was named after French mathematician Blaise Pascal. PASCAL is a high-level language that is widely used in teaching structured programming and data structuring. Commercial versions of PASCAL were often used in the 1980’s.
C-1972. This language was based on an earlier language called “B.” It is a general purpose and low-level language and was created for Unix systems. It is the second most popular language behind Java. C#, Java, Javascript, Perl, PHP, and Python are all derivatives of C.  C was created by Dennis Ritchie of Bell Labs and is used primarily in cross-platform programming, systems programming, computer game development, and Unix programming.
C++-1983. This language was formerly known as “C with Classes,” ++ is the increment operator in “C.” It is an intermediate-level and object-oriented language. It is Basically an extension of C, with enhancements such as templates, virtual functions, and classes. C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup of Bell Labs and is primarily used in commercial application development, server/client applications, embedded software, and video games. It is widely used by companies such as Adobe, Mozilla, Firefox, Microsoft, and Internet Explorer.
OBJECTIVE C- 1983. (Object-oriented extension of “C”) This is a general purpose and high-level language that expands on C by adding message-passing functionality based on Smalltalk language. It was created by Brad Cox and Tom Love and is primarily used by Apple’s OS X and iOS operating systems.
PERL- 1987. This language is incorrectly spelled due to the name “Pearl” was already taken. It is a general-purpose and high-level language.  PERL was created for report processing on Unix systems. It is known for its versatility and high power capabilities. This language was created by Larry Wall of Unisys. It is primarily used in CGI, graphics programming, network programming, and database applications by companies such as IMDB, Amazon, Ticketmaster, and Priceline.
PYTHON– 1991. It was named after the British comedy troupe “Monty Python.” It is a general-purpose and high-level language. This language was created by Guido Van Rossum of CWI to support a variety of programming styles and to be fun to use. Monty Python references are often found in its sample code, instructions, and tutorials. PYTHON is primarily used in web applications, software development, and information security by companies such as Google, Yahoo, and Spotify.
 
RUBY– 1993. This language was named after the birthstone of one of the creator’s collaborators. It is a teaching language influenced by Perl, Lisp, Ada, and Smalltalk and designed for productive and enjoyable programming. RUBY was Created by Yukihiro Matsumoto and is primarily used in web application development and Ruby on Rails. It is often used by companies such as Twitter, Hulu, and Groupon.
JAVA- 1995. This language was named after the amount of coffee that was drunk during its creation. It was made for maintaining dynamic web pages and server-side development, so it is commonly used by Facebook, Wikipedia, Digg, and WordPress. JAVA is a general purpose and high-level language with cross-platform functionality. It is currently the world’s most popular programming language and was created by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems. JAVA is primarily used in network programming, web application development, software development, and graphical user Interface development. Widely used by Android OS/apps.
PHP-1995. PHP formerly stood for “Personal Home Page” but now stands for “Hypertext Preprocessor.”) It is an open-source and general-purpose language. PHP was created by Rasmus Lerdorf to be primarily used in building and maintaining web pages and server-side development. It is used by companies such as Facebook, Wikipedia, Digg, and WordPress.
 JAVASCRIPT-This language is the final choice after “Mocha” and “LiveScript” for form submission/validation, interactivity, animations, and user activity tracking. It was created by Brendan Eich from Netscape to be primarily used in dynamic web development, PDF documents, desktop widgets, and web browsers. Commonly used by companies such as Gmail, Mozilla Firefox, and Adobe Photoshop.
 
 
References:
Bergin, Thomas J. “A History of the History of Programming Languages.” May 2007, Vol. 50 issue 5 page69-74. Business Source Premier.
Silvast, Antti. “Human Technology.” May 2015. Vol 11 Issue 1, page22-29. Business Source Premier.

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